[169] By April 24 elements of two Soviet fronts had encircled Berlin. [10][11] Political discussions had been suspended on 2 August, when Molotov stated that they could not be resumed until progress was made in military talks late in August,[12] after the talks had stalled over guarantees for the Baltic states,[13][14] while the military talks upon which Molotov insisted[13] started on 11 August. [164] While initial talk postulated a race to Berlin by the Allies, after Stalin successfully lobbied for Eastern Germany to fall within the Soviet "sphere of influence" at Yalta in February 1945, the Western Allies made no plans to seize the city by a ground operation. [49] On 11 February 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States and United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the USSR. British and U.S. civilian authorities ordered their military forces in Europe to deport to the Soviet Union millions of former residents of the USSR (some of whom collaborated with the Germans), including numerous persons who had left Russia and established different citizenship many years before. [86] The term frontovik was not equivalent to the German term Landser, the American G.I Joe nor the British Tommy Atkins, all of which referred to soldiers in general, as the term frontovik applied only to those infantrymen who fought at the front. [66][67] According to German figures 5,734,000 Soviet POWs were taken[68] Between 22 June 1941 and the end of the war, roughly 5.7 million members of the Red Army fell into German hands. [73], Correctly calculating that Hitler would direct efforts to capture Moscow, Stalin concentrated his forces to defend the city, including numerous divisions transferred from Soviet eastern sectors after he determined that Japan would not attempt an attack in those areas. [97] During the charge, the riflemen would fire with rifles and submachine guns while throwing grenades before closing in for blizhnii boi (Russian: ближний бой - close combat - close-quarter fighting with guns, bayonets, rifle butts, knives, digging tools and fists), a type of fighting at which the Red Army excelled. [85], Over 75% of Red Army divisions were listed as "rifle divisions" (as infantry divisions were known in the Red Army). A figure of 20 million was considered official during the Soviet era. [54] Stalin did not agree with the suggested protocol, and negotiations broke down. While females in the U.S., Britain and Russia famously toiled in munitions factories during the war, women served in combat roles in the Red Army. Discharged during war of 9,693,000 includes 3,798,200 sent on sick leave; 3,614,600 transferred to work in industry, anti-aircraft defense and armed guards; 1,174,600 sent to NKVD troops and organs; 250,400 transferred to Polish, Czechoslovak and Romanian armies; 436,600 imprisoned; 206,000 discharged; and 212,400 not found after deserting, detached from troop convoy or missing in military districts in the interior. During the period of Glasnost the official figure of 20 million war dead was challenged by Soviet scholars. 13 (2): 14–16. [160] Following the invasion of these Balkan countries, Stalin and Churchill met in the autumn of 1944, where they agreed upon various percentages for "spheres of influence" in several Balkan states, though the diplomats for neither leader knew what the term actually meant. [33] In Lithuania, the situation was better because the migrants sent to that country actually moved to the former area of Eastern Prussia (now Kaliningrad) which, contrary to the original plans, never became part of Lithuania. However, the official figure of 8.7 million military deaths has been disputed by Russian scholars who believe that the number of dead and missing POWs is not correct and new research is necessary to determine actual losses. For example, the workforce of the Donbass and Kuzbass mining basins is known to have been replenished in this way. Chevron/Ian Allan. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war account for a major portion. He cited figures that range from 21.7–46 million. Their demographic study estimated the total war dead of 26.6 million included 20.0 million males and 6.6 million females. According to Ivlev. They responded by murdering approximately 100,000 political prisoners throughout the western parts of the Soviet Union, with methods that included bayoneting people to death and tossing grenades into crowded cells. According to Krivosheev the difference can be explained by the fact that the medical service included sick personnel who did not take part in the fighting.

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