This observation supports results of an independent study, in which KAI scores were predicted by personality scores in a similar way .
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Project administration, These results challenge the validity of both cognitive style questionnaires and cognitive style performance tests due to the confounds with personality traits and intelligence. Noteworthy, the CSI and KAI have been allocated to the holistic-analytic cluster  (i.e. b. Cognitive styles index (Allinson and Hayes 1996) The Cognitive Styles Index (CSI) (Allinson and Hayes 1996) is a self-report test designed to measure the whole/part-processing dimension of cognitive style.
The literature indicates that cognitive styles assessed via i) questionnaires are predicted by personality and ii) performance tests (e.g., Group Embedded Figures Test; GEFT) are related to general intelligence. This error rate leads to an underestimation of the predictors’ coefficients, which can be adjusted thanks to the EIV procedure. The procedure was analogous to the one for sample 1 in Study 1. Additionally, a bipolar concept (i.e. Then, a more complex figure is presented in which the previously presented figure is included. Significant results are given in bold. With regard to the other way, Kozhevnikov and colleagues [2,16] argued for a hierarchical model of cognitive styles. We also expected that (1) the correlation between GEFT and RSMT would be larger than the correlation between GEFT and CSI and (2) the correlation between a personality dimension (here conscientiousness, as it seems to be the most related personality dimension to analytical style, see Table 3) and CSI would be larger than between GEFT and CSI. On the first page, the study was described. Sex (dummy coded) and age were entered as control variables. We suggest that the comparable results on both the CSI and KAI might generalize to further cognitive style questionnaires. For sample 1, participants were given an online link. These conclusions suggest that cognitive style measures fall in the first Campbell and Fiske  scenario, i.e. For sample 2, the procedure was the same, but they completed several additional questionnaires not relevant to the current research question of this study and will be published elsewhere. Potentially, cognitive style performance measures [see 24] as well as cognitive style questionnaires [see 34] do not meet discriminant validity. With respect to the third finding we would like to highlight that in assessing the proportion of CSI variance explained, we controlled for two biases: (1) the data could have noise (e.g. The participants had 12 minutes to perform the task.
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